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Opportunities and challenges in creating functioning horticulture ecosystem for Te Tai Tokerau.

Kellogg 44
Nov 2021

Executive Summary

Northland is currently going through a transformational phase, with a surge of horticultural developments from the Kaipara all the way to the Far North of New Zealand. This growth is mainly due to land use change and land price/availability in the region, but also diversification of marketable food opportunities coming out of Northland.

This project involved the creation of a short film. The purpose of the film was to provide an impactful medium, showcasing Northland’s horticulture scene and its growth. This film highlights the implications of this growth. One of these is the regions ability to attract and retain a skilled labour force, as well as working on workforce solutions to create sustainable employment opportunities for local Northlanders.

Alongside this, we need to consider our social licence to operate in the community. Engagement with community groups, iwi and others is critical to ensuring the success of regional developments. A key theme that emerged during filming, is the opportunity that horticulture delivers to the regions economic growth.

A flourising horticulture ecosystem, not only provides diversification of economic returns, but also encourages value chain partners to establish in Northland, thus increasing the skill base and opportunity for our future workforce. This has a knock on effect for improving local small businesses.

Infrastructure investment for better roads, accommodation and power has been highlighted as key priorities for the region to flourish.

A range of stakeholders provided insights on our topics:

  • Horticulture in Northland
  • Growth and development
  • Opportunities and challenges
  • Workforce development
  • Engaging community
  • The future.

My recommendations are:

  • Value chain businesses should consider supporting the region by establishing a base up in Northland.
  • Develop a functioning ecosystem that becomes an enabler for driving skills and capability of our people.
  • Design & Implementation of Workforce Development Solutions in association with industry groups, product groups, growers, businesses, iwi, and government agencies.
  • Economic Development to support Infrastructure needs identified in the film specific to:
      • power supply and capacity
      • housing and accommodation
      • town planning, roading solutions
      • transport & logistics.

Some things New Zealand sheep and beef farmers should understand about climate change and farm greenhouse gas emissions.

Kellogg 44

Nov 2021​

Executive Summary

Climate change is the most important environmental issue the world faces (PCE, 2016). It is impacting the world through increased frequency and intensity of adverse weather events like droughts, hurricanes and floods and through rising sea levels and ocean acidification (IPCC, 2021). Stabilizing the climate will require strong, rapid, and sustained reductions in GHG emissions (IPCC, 2021).

Livestock farming of ruminants contributes significantly to global emissions of GHG (Garnett and Godde, 2017) and there is growing pressure internationally for agricultural emissions to be reduced (Greenpeace, 2021; Nature, 2019).

The 2015 Paris Agreement is the most recent global agreement on climate change (MoE, 2018). The main purpose of the Paris agreement is to keep the global average temperature well below 20C above pre-industrial levels, while pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.50C (MoE, 2018). Accordingly, in 2019 the New Zealand government set into law new domestic targets through the Climate Change Response (Zero Carbon) Amendment Act (MoE, 2021a):

  • Net zero emissions of all greenhouse gases other than biogenic methane by 2050
  • 24 to 47 per cent below 2017 biogenic methane emissions by 2050, including 10 per cent below 2017 biogenic methane emissions by 2030

New Zealand livestock farmers will need to play a pivotal role in helping the country achieve these goals as they are responsible for almost all biogenic methane emissions and own almost all the land that is suitable to plant trees on to help offset carbon dioxide emissions. Achieving these goals is going to require significant changes to the way we farm.

There are other external motivations to reduce farm GHG emissions: market access (He Waka Eke Noa, 2021), consumer preference (He Waka Eke Noa, 2021) and the desire to hold your head up when you walk down the street (O’Mannin, 2021). For a lot of farmers there is also a strong internal motivator- a desire to do the right thing (MPI, 2019; O’Mannin, 2021). There is also the fact that changing climate will directly impact farm businesses.

The farming sector has been through substantial change in the past. The dropping of farm subsidies in 1984 and amalgamation in the dairy industry are examples of major change that were extremely painful at the time, absolutely heart breaking for some, but looking back now it was the right thing to do and has helped get us to where we are; one of the most efficient farming nations on earth.

Climate change and Greenhouse gas mitigation is already causing significant change in NZ’s agriculture sector, but climate change is poorly understood by the majority of NZ farmers (MPI, 2019). The purpose of this project is to help sheep & beef farmers understand some of the things they should know about climate change and farm Greenhouse gas emissions.

A review of wetlands and other methods of reducing P and N loss into waterways.

Jeremy Lawson - A review of wetlands
Kellogg 44
Nov 2021

Executive Summary

It’s not often when a group a farmers meet, and the conversation does not turn towards increased compliance and regulation. Water quality standards are usually brought up and no matter whether you are rural or urban most would agree rivers and lakes in New Zealand need to be clean and swimmable, after all, brand “New Zealand” is all about plush countryside and beautiful lakes rivers and mountains.
In the last 30 years New Zealand agriculture has increased nitrogen use by over 600% from 62,000t to 452,000tonnes and cracks are starting to appear.

Anthropogenic inputs from intensive agriculture and poor practices can be harmful to the health of our waterways, precious wetlands rich in biodiversity and known for their many environmental benefits including filtering nutrients and carbon sequestration have been degraded or drained over time.

New Zealand has positioned itself well to feed a growing population, but land use change and intensification is adding pressure to ecosystems and in many cases degrading water quality. Because agriculture is so important to the NZ economy and the very social wellbeing of our people, how do we mitigate the impacts of intensive agriculture on the waterways so that future generations can enjoy the same privileges many of us had growing up.

In this report, I review research on wetlands and other methods which have been proven to mitigate agriculture nutrient loss to waterways. In hope of finding a silver bullet to many water quality issues the answer really is not that simple, the dynamics of agriculture in NZ is diverse. Finding a solution is difficult due to different production systems, geographic, climatic and soil property differences.

I came to understand that many mitigation techniques are on farm management practices such as keeping your Olsen P within economic optimum range, avoid soil damaging activities, better effluent storage etc. I also discovered that land use capability should be at the crux of decision making when it comes to consenting what production system is suitable for that piece of land from an environmental perspective as its much cheaper to allocate the correct land use than back pedal damages to the water quality.

Wetlands are significant for many other reasons other than filtering nutrients and understanding their importance for biodiversity I discovered that they can be a useful tool in the toolbox and are recognised in nutrient budgeting models such as overseer, rejuvenating existing wetlands is a great place to start and constructed wetlands whilst costly can serve many purposes.

Accelerating Bioprotectant Development and Commercialisation from New Zealand

Kellogg 44
Nov 202

Executive Summary

The trend to towards the development and use of bioprotectants to control crop pests and disease is now in a surge mode, as evidenced by growth rates in bioprotectant sales (3x that of chemical protectants), start-up company formations, mergers and acquisitions, and multinational and venture capital investments. The stars are aligned in New Zealand for us to engage in this trend and indeed take a leadership position in it.

This report begins with some necessary background and context to this endeavour, followed by an assessment of market drivers and local and global opportunities that present themselves for bioprotectant development. An overview of New Zealand capabilities in public sector research institutions and their enviable track record bodes well for the ability to deliver on the goal of being a partner in bioprotectant development at a global level.

Looking back at the factors that have promoted or constrained past product developments, and the nature of our commercial partnerships, then enables us to develop a strategy to achieve a more focussed, collective, engaged approach to new product development, resulting in clear benefits to all participants in the value chain of bioprotectant development, commercialisation and use.

A vision for 2030 could look like this:

  • Fundamental science activity is adequately resourced to support product development
  • There is a branded and collective ‘front door’ through which bioprotectant IP is channelled to commercial partners and thence the market
  • Commercialisation and business development professionals are active from within this entity
  • This entity also acts to promote awareness of NZ capabilities to attract investment and co-development partnerships
  • Product developments are tied to clear market needs, especially global opportunities
  • Product development is coordinated across key public sector institutions
    Commercial partnerships begin early in the development phase, are robust and enduring
  • Several IP assignments or licenses are executed for bioprotectants every year
  • The regulatory framework favours bioprotectant development and registration
  • Revenue exceeds NZ$15m per annum and continues to grow
    The product brand is established and respected overseas.

Recommendations

Section 5 details a strategy to enhance bioprotectant development in New Zealand for global markets. In summary, the proposed actions encompass recommendations in the following categories:

Revenue sources

Private capital; redirection of internal funds; ‘A Lighter Touch’ programme engagement

Scientific Expertise

Postgrad and postdoc support; public-private research secondments and exchanges; sponsored senior research positions

Foundation science

Target biology and ecology; culture collections; new sources of accessions; biofermentation facilities; nanostring technology

Commercial partnerships

Earlier engagement models; strategic relationships are formalised; active relationship management

Prioritising product goals

Focus on global markets; greater rigour via new assessment tools applied early; new modes of action developed; semiochemical-based control products developed; targets agreed with commercial partners; microbial consortia; new markets (floriculture, postharvest); wider label claims on existing products

Commercialisation

Patentability a key criterion; improved contractual conditions in testing with commercial partners; performance criteria in licenses

Regulatory reform

Broadening group standards; preferential review for bioprotectants; referencing overseas data

An incorporated entity

For collective IP and commercialisation activity from public sector organisations; branded

Sector engagement

More extensive engagement of public sector professionals in agrichemical/bioprotectant industry events and organisations

Validation of biocontrol

Post-market data and practices to validate technology; industry outreach programme for biocontrol.

Above all, focussed leadership and a collective mind-set from public and private organisations, and a vehicle for it, will be needed to bring this strategy to fruition.

Operating a successful low-tech, small scale mushroom farm.

Operating a successful low-tech, small scale mushroom farm.
Kellogg 44
Nov 2021

Executive Summary

This business concept works to research the potential outcome of starting and operating a successful low-tech, small scale specialty mushroom farm in the North Island of New Zealand. It is a short overview of a new business venture idea that will be further expanded into a business plan once the concept has proved probable.

Starting in Northland, the long-term idea is to be able to move around and transport the mushroom farm accordingly. The farm will be producing oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) for the first year and introduce more specialty varieties in the following years, such as Shiitake (Letinula novae-zealandiae) and Enoki (Flammulina velutipes).

The report explores the possible outcome of a successful mushroom farm by:

  • Understanding the NZ mushroom industry dynamics and the market demand for speciality mushroom varieties and potential trends that are on the rise
  • Potential challenges and risks that could arise and ways to mitigate them
  • Gaining insight into the requirements needed to start the farm and the DIY options for establishing a producing fruiting room
  • Other profitable ventures that arise from the production of fungi.

The New Zealand mushroom industry is small but well established. With only one fully integrated commercial mushroom farm in the country and multiple, small at home start-ups selling gourmet mushroom varieties, the industry is not yet overly saturated in terms of low-tech start-ups.

The vision is to be a major supplier of quality specialty variety mushrooms in Northland and expand into the rest of the North Island. To achieve the set vision, the intention is to practice low tech farming practices by growing edible gourmet mushrooms in a controlled environment and using locally sourced substrates as much as possible.


The recommendations will show the most achievable way to reach the goal of a successful mushroom farm is to work with small harvests with high quality fruit. The farm can be built by DIY practises that suit the grower and help to keep the costs down.

How might we develop a food system that benefits everyone in the community.

Catherine Miller - How might we develop a food system that benefits everyone in the community.
Kellogg 44
Nov 2021

Executive Summary

In this project I considered the question “how might we develop a food system that benefits everyone in
community?” I ask this question because there are two sides to our current food system. We have a highly productive and well-functioning export system bringing benefit to the New Zealand economy, yet domestically we have people struggling to access healthy food. Some may suggest this is a social sector issue but I’d argue that when a significant number of New Zealanders are reliant on charities for food then there is something inherently wrong with our food system.

I conducted 45 interviews with people from right across our local community including farmers, business, iwi, local government, social services, beneficiaries and youth. What was broadly evident from the interviews was that there was a dissatisfaction with our current food system and a belief that it is failing people within our community. People commented on how there seemed to be a lack of thought regarding ensuring food production is protected and that people have access to food. Many raised concerns about how health was being impacted by poor quality food. The shift from localism to a centralized food system was also a subject of concern that was regularly raised.

In looking at the personal experiences of people who had been through food insecurity and lessons from past generations a common theme was raised of the importance of self-sufficiency skills like gardening, hunting, bartering and trading. The importance of community, whanau and having good networks was also highlighted. The case study of Taumarunui Whakaarotahi Trust demonstrates at a practical level how the unique strengths of rural New Zealand can be better utilized to develop a food system that benefits everyone in the community. There is much that can be achieved by local communities in collaboration with the primary industries.

However, there are regulatory roadblocks that need to be addressed by Government to enable a thriving local food system to develop. The potential benefits of developing such a food system are wide ranging, impacting poverty, physical and mental health, increasing community connectedness and resilience, stimulating regional economies and reducing CO2 emissions. In making my recommendations I considered the enormous pressure Covid-19 has placed upon our local communities, the primary sector and Government. I therefore focused mainly on areas of collaboration, how we could build on current initiatives and better utilize our strengths.

Recommendations:

Community / Local Government / District Health Boards

  • Consult widely amongst the community to avoid making assumptions about who is interested in food security and who can help bring solutions
  • In designing a food system to benefit community consider the unique strengths of the area and the strengths and values of the people within your community.

Primary Industries

  • Connect with Kore Hiakai and be part of food security conversations to investigate ways to better integrate current food security initiatives with education from food producers regarding how that food is grown
  • Horticulture industry to partner with community and marae-based gardens and offer advice as part of
    fulfilling their vision of ‘healthy food for all, forever’
  • Partner with Government and local communities in developing models to help small landowners be profitable and develop pathways for people to get into land ownership.

Government

  • Increase access via changes to food safety regulations and reducing barriers to cottage food industry
  • Increase regulation of processed foods high in sugar/salt and saturated fats with the aim of reducing the availability and marketing of unhealthy food – particularly to children
  • Establish a national food strategy that involves enabling and facilitating the creation of local food systems
  • Utilize Pamu farms to experiment with stacking enterprises appropriate to the local area to identify diversification opportunities for small landowners and increase participation in food production.

Northland Hill Country and the Implications of Change for Landowners.

Kellogg 44
Nov 2021

Executive Summary

A significant challenge presented in the 21st century, will be meeting the food needs of an exponentially increasing world population, and ensuring agriculture implements the principles of sustainable development.

There is evidence to suggest, observed from environmental research such as the Climate Change Councils’ report (A low emissions future for Aotearoa, 2021), that agriculture contributes to environmental concerns, such as water quality and greenhouse gas emissions. This has been met with fierce resistance from agricultural lobbyist groups such as, ‘Groundswell Aotearoa’ and ‘50-Shades of Green’ whom promote the significant role that agriculture plays in supporting the growing demand for world food and concurrently highlighting agriculture’s significant economic and socio-economic contribution to Aotearoa, achieved through domestic and export revenue from meat, fibre and milk, in addition to the significant employment opportunities generated through these primary industry supply chains. What if, there was a way we could achieve both essential objectives?

This project explores the evolving landscape of Northland hill country farming, highlighting the current position of Northland hill country sheep and beef farming, the significant uptake of forestry competing with the sheep and beef industry for land-use on these hills, and the opportunity for integration of these industries to collaborate in meeting both our environmental, economic, and socio-economic objectives. The implication for landowners, is that the decisions we make today, will not only initiate short-term change, but may also present long-term and inter-generational implications that necessitate a need for holistic and well-informed decision-making process’.

Through my research project, it has highlighted:

  • The need for hill country landowners to understand their whole farm system, including specific strengths and limitations of land, the relative profitability of all land classes on their property, and the logistical role each hectare of land plays within the business.

  • Integrating indigenous and exotic forestry regimes on hill country can provide improved financial resilience, profitability, and environmental benefits with well-planned and well-executed management advice.

  • Understanding your resources and the relative profitability of various land classes provides economic insight, however a need for more holistic considerations such as environmental and socio-economic implications should be adopted.

  • Hill Country Farmers are going to have to continue to adapt their farming operations and become more financially and environmentally resilient through a multi-faceted continual improvement process in productivity, achieved though decisions such as genetic merit of livestock and stock classes, as well as adaptation to policy implementation and awareness of their environmental obligations under Kaitiakitanga.


My recommendations to hill country landowners are:

  • It is imperative that any landowner considering land-use change engage industry expert advice to understand what the implications of land-use change decision may present to their business to encompass; financial, environmental, logistical, and socio-economic implications of change.

  • Hill Country Farmers must continue to adapt and become more financially and environmentally resilient through continuous improvement in productivity achieved with improvements in areas such as the genetic merit of livestock, stock class & policies, as well as adaptation to policy implementation and awareness of their environmental footprint.

The Mackenzie Study – a view of leadership

The Otago Business School and the Department of Economics recently conducted research on behalf of The Mackenzie Charitable Foundation and The New Zealand Rural Leadership Trust.

‘The Mackenzie Study’ revealed remarkable results on the personal gains in entrepreneurial skills attributable to participation in the Kellogg and Nuffield Programmes. It is Nuffield Scholars’ broad and consistent level of achievement over time, that resonates most.

Preliminary findings are a compelling case for anyone considering applying for a 2022 Nuffield Scholarship, or looking to develop their leadership ability through the Kellogg Rural Leadership Programme.

A comprehensive survey of Nuffield Scholarship Alumni was conducted in June this year, with invitations sent to all 135 living alumni.

The study had an unusually high participation rate of over 50%, especially given the flooding in Canterbury.

We’ll be presenting more results in due course, including comparisons between alumni and current cohorts. For now, here are just some of the findings demonstrating the professional accomplishments of Nuffield Scholarship Alumni.

Each result is a strong call to potential applicants for the 2022 Nuffield Scholarships, to apply before midnight this Sunday, August 15.

What is the future of grocery? Millennials, branding and big data.

Kellogg course 43

Executive Summary

This paper presents some significant empirical findings about generational cohorts, their grocery shopping behaviors and the implications of this for retailers. Marketing has long relied on the use of market segmentation. While birth age has been a useful way to create groups, it does not help to understand cohort motivations. Environmental events experienced during one’s coming of age create values that remain relatively unchanged throughout the life of the citizen.

This study investigates what the future of grocery is for Generation Z (Gen Z) and Generation Y (Gen Y / Millennials). We will also explore what impact Branding and Big Data have on the way Gen Y and Gen Z citizens consume.

Every generation needs to eat – the act of buying food will never go away – but how we buy food will certainly evolve with future generations. The future of shopping will focus more on experience and creative more seamless experiences. The future of grocery is all about citizen-choice – giving citizens the options they want at every stage of their lives. The future of grocery will be impacted by innovation in technology, and other ways to make shopping more of an experience, whether that’s in-person or digital.

The aim of this paper is to explore how supermarkets will evolve and consume in a post-Covid environment. We will look at Shopping Malls to understand how the environment has been transformed and what the population expects from these spaces. We will study how millennials consume and what attributes they are looking for in products.

This is important and these questions need to be answered as the economic environment for grocery stores is tough. Retailers are navigating the shift in citizen behaviour and there is a fundamental shift in the environment they operate in. The year ahead is characterised by unusually high uncertainty for the grocery industry. The development and trajectory of the industry will heavily depend on the evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic and how consumers will behave in response. Which consumer behaviors observed during the pandemic will stick? 

What new trends might emerge post-pandemic? Will online grocery sales continue to accelerate? How can retailers make it profitable? Will food nationalism continue, or will focus shift to trading down and price? Will safety and health be important factors? How about the broader topics of sustainability and climate change? This report aims to address these questions.

The methodology used for this report involved a literature review and thematic analysis which looks into the recurring themes of Big Data, Retailers and Citizens.

The literature review was the major component of the research including resources from domestic and international publications, opinion pieces and industry reports into the topic of groceries/supermarkets, the current environment and the future. 

Themes related to consumption patterns were discussed. Key findings were that Generational cohorts are not the same as generations 1 (Markert, 2004).

Each generation is defined by its years of birth; while a generation typically is 20–25 years in length, or roughly the time it takes a person to grow up and have children, a cohort can be as long or short as the external events which define it. Generational cohorts are set apart by cataclysmic events that produce a change in the values, attitudes, and predispositions in a society. These events create a discontinuous historical timeline; such secular change events can be characterised as a ‘sense of rupture with the past’2 Millennials and Gen Zs have grown up with technology and they are using this in their quest to purchase the perfect product in the perfect way.

We have compared Gen Z and Gen Y with Baby Boomers and Gen X who value the retail experience and in-store service. For Baby Boomers, the purchase process starts with a retailer the consumer trusts, who gives advice for choosing the right product, while for GenZ and Y, the purchase process starts with choosing a product. This study investigates retail strategies that will appeal to younger generational cohorts and considers how retailers should be building citizen relationships. The key insight for brands is that Gen Y & Z all about authenticity. They want to present themselves as they truly are. They expect a brand to take a position. To be respected for its values and demands, a brand must demonstrate them in a concrete manner, and shift from words to actions.

Other key findings:

a) Getting online will continue to be an imperative for New Zealand producers. It is hard to imagine or even remember, but as little as 18 months ago, some of the biggest food and beverage makers still had no direct-to-consumer (DTC) ecommerce channels.

b) This pandemic is driving citizens to focus on “preventative eating” or “proactive eating.” New and innovative superfoods marketed to boost immunity will be one of the top food and beverage industry trends in 2021, whether it comes in the form of mushroom coffee, algae capsules, no- or low-alcohol beverages, or bone broth.

c) The climate crisis is driving demand for plant-based products. Demand for the latest generation of plant-based products isn’t just due to health goals

d) Citizens will be more cost-conscious. Even before the recession, customers were looking for ways to cut everyday costs, with more than half looking for ways to reduce their grocery bills.

e) Citizens will continue to look for greater transparency and connection to brands. Citizens may have tighter budgets, but that doesn’t mean they’re willing to cut corners when it comes to their health or personal values systems. Instead, they’re carefully reading the labels to find out not just what goes into their food, but where and how it’s made.

f) New recipes for engagement and sales may prove more popular than familiar favorites. Citizens anticipate they’ll continue to recreate big nights out in the comfort of their homes—even post-pandemic.

g) Citizens don’t think in terms of channels—they expect an outstanding shopping experience from clicks to bricks. To meet growing customer expectations, retail store owners within malls need to focus on an omnichannel approach with a unified online-offline experience.

h) Would we be better off moving to deliveries of food from local producers and suppliers directly to the citizens? It’s not that straightforward. Many farmers choose to sell their produce to supermarkets, despite retaining under a third of the retail price on average, as it is more efficient and reliable.

My recommendations are:

Supermarkets get closer to the customer – A real opportunity exists for retailers to secure new customer data. Gleaning insights successfully can increase the lifetime value of each customer.

Retailers ‘woo’ citizens with Experiences and Speed – Coupling experience with speedy fulfillment will go a long way toward meeting this generation’s expectations.

Don’t abandon stores – Reimagine them to create a digitally connected, interactive and hyper-personalized physical shopping experience.

Introduce concepts and focus on “cool” social media – Many products are the same and have become commodities. Citizens differentiate between products by their experience with them.

Overload on feedback – Gen Zs value feedback from their family and friends, suggesting that retailers no longer own the review process. Brands should also look at collecting shopper product testimonial videos – an authentic approach that adds tremendous credibility.

Focus on Ethical and Environmentally Friendly Products – There is accumulating evidence that consumers are impacted by the perceived sustainability of [a] brand, and that consumers are willing to pay a premium for products from a sustainable brand over a non-sustainable competitor brand.

Read the full report:

What is the future of grocery? Millennials, branding and big data.

Partial land use diversification to strengthen income and business resilience.

Kellogg course 43

Executive Summary

Pressures on what is deemed the appropriate use of land to create food and fibre in New Zealand are countless and seemingly coming from multiple directions. Such pressures can have the ability to inspire change, be it willing or not.

Reactive land use diversification is not new. Land holders have changed their agricultural systems to increase financial gains or access stronger markets as the result of many external influences. Often, the notion of land use change has been referenced as a complete transition of the entire land holding. However partial diversification is already prevalent amongst New Zealand agricultural enterprises, and many rely upon multiple income sources for financial viability.

When thinking of investment, an investment reliant upon a sole markets return is described as high risk, hence the often-sage advice to diversify a share portfolio. The investment of agriculture is surely deemed high risk when the return is commonly solely reliant on the sale of a single commodity.

The purpose of this report is to explore the reasons behind land use decision makers reasons for exploring land use diversification and to determine if there is a place to partially diversify agricultural enterprises in a way that both brings income and business resilience as well as reduced environmental impacts and greater compliance of regulatory frameworks. Can agricultural businesses be the same as a diverse share portfolio, with varying risk, seasonality, liquidity and return all on one land holding?

Financial, Environmental, Social, Knowledge and Regulatory opportunities or barriers appear to drive land use change, but none more so than financial. However, with the exploration of the other factors, it could be said that financial performance is heavily pursued in the land use that is desired by the land holder and that has created a narrow view of the business or lands capabilities.

There appears to be an opportunity within New Zealands’ Food and Fibre sectors to create multiple enterprise farming operations that bring increased financial resilience, lower environmental impacts whilst maintaining the “social licence to farm” and creating job satisfaction for those that own the land.

Therefore, the recommendations from the research undertaken are:

Collaboration from a variety of sectors to allow knowledge share. This could include discussion groups that are possibly hosted by the likes of Dairy NZ, Beef & Lamb, Horticulture NZ and other non-government organisations.

Research and publications in to successful and failed enterprises that have undertaken partial land use changes to establish the complications, complexities, drivers and barriers that exist in partially diversified operations.

Greater accessibility to ministry funding to enable partial diversifications where outcomes are likely to improve environmental impacts. Funding or resource to enable the collaboration of farming businesses to achieve greater market access when sole scale is not sufficient should also be explored.

Read Jenna’s full report here:

Partial land use diversification to strengthen income and business resilience.